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REVIEW ARTICLES
Managing dermatophytoses in pregnancy, lactation, and children
Smitha S Prabhu, Pragathi Sankineni
October 2017, 1(3):34-37
DOI:10.4103/CDR.CDR_29_17  
Chronic and recurrent dermatophytosis is on the rise. Managing dermatophytosis in special circumstances such as pregnancy and lactation and in children is a challenge. Topicals are safe in most cases, whereas oral antifungals are better avoided in pregnancy and lactation. In children, systemic antifungals are to be dose modified according to body weight.
  12,460 594 -
Topical antifungals: A review and their role in current management of dermatophytoses
Shital Amin Poojary
October 2017, 1(3):24-29
DOI:10.4103/CDR.CDR_34_17  
Topical antifungals are an important adjuvant in treatment of dermatophytosis. Also specific situations such as dermatophytoses in pregnancy and infants often warrant topical therapy. Several new topical antifungals and newer formulations hold out the promise of enhanced effectiveness of topical therapy in dermatophytosis. This article reviews the entire spectrum of topical antifungals and formulations and their role in management of dermatophytosis.
  9,708 1,261 -
RESIDENT PAGE
Lines in dermatology
AS Savitha
January-June 2017, 1(1):27-31
DOI:10.4103/2542-551X.196954  
  8,525 1,055 -
CASE REPORTS
Autonomic denervation dermatitis: A new type of eczematous dermatitis
Bhushan Madke, Madhulika Mhatre, Piyush Kumar, Adarsh Lata Singh, Anil Patki
July-December 2017, 1(2):61-64
DOI:10.4103/CDR.CDR_8_17  
We hereby describe a case series of eczematous dermatitis in a peculiar clinical setting. The cases presented with eczematous dermatitis at the site of surgical incision and adjoining skin after a varying lag period. Clinically, all patients presented with xerosis and eczematous rashes around the surgical sites. In our observation, the time taken to develop skin rashes around the surgical sites ranged from 6 months to 3 years. We believe that denervation injury due to dermal nerve transections may lead to autonomic disturbance in the involved area and contribute to the development of dermatitis. Treatment is essentially medical with topical emollients and judicious use of topical corticosteroids. Through this case series, we propose to introduce a new dermatological entity - “autonomic denervation dermatitis” in postsurgical patients.
  6,920 272 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Dermoscopy of general dermatological conditions in Indian population: A descriptive study
Sunita S Nayak, Hita H Mehta, Prachi C Gajjar, Vivek N Nimbark
July-December 2017, 1(2):41-51
DOI:10.4103/CDR.CDR_9_17  
Background: Patients attending the dermatology outpatient department (OPD) come with varied presentations. It is a challenge for a dermatologist to make a right diagnosis in a short time noninvasively. Hence in such conditions, dermoscope provides a rapid handy diagnostic aid. Objectives: The aim is to evaluate and compare the dermoscopic features of common dermatological conditions in an Indian population with brown skin. Materials and Methods: A total of 475 dermatoses including inflammatory, infectious, vesiculobullous, vascular, benign face tumors, hypopigmentary, drug reactions and miscellaneous conditions attending the OPD between March 2011 and January 2013 were enrolled in the study after obtaining informed consent. Detailed history and thorough dermatological examination were conducted to reach the final diagnosis. Dermlite II PRO dermoscope was used for the study. Data collected was analyzed by frequency and percentage. P value for each dermoscopic parameter in three groups was calculated using Chi-square test for independence using graph pad where the value of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Red dotted vessel was a prominent feature in inflammatory conditions (P < 0.0003), which was found to be regular in a pattern in psoriasis (100%). The unique feature of lichen planus was Wickham's striae (P < 0.0001). Collarette scales were observed in 93% of cases of pityriasis rosea. Live nymphs depicting as brown oval structure (46.67%) were observed. Scabies mites head was characterized using “Triangular sign” (93%). Red brown dots and papilla-like structure were observed in most of the cases of warts. Comedo-like opening (P = 0.024) and milia-like cyst (P = 0.0495) are typical features of seborrheic keratosis. Conclusion: Dermoscopy findings provide an extra clue for the diagnosis of common dermatoses and it also helpful in prognostic evaluation and monitoring response to treatment.
  5,513 557 1
Comparison of efficacy of oral azithromycin with oral minocycline in the treatment of acne vulgaris
Vidyadhar R Sardesai, Yashodhara T Deka
July-December 2017, 1(2):37-40
DOI:10.4103/CDR.CDR_2_17  
Background: Acne vulgaris is a common skin disease seen primarily in adolescents and young adults. As the treatment involves long-term therapy with antibiotics, an agent with a long half-life can be very useful in increasing the compliance. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a pulse dose of azithromycin and compare it with daily dose of minocycline in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Materials and Methods: This prospective, randomized, open-label, comparative study was conducted on sixty patients with moderate-to-moderately severe (Grade II and III) acne vulgaris. Patients were randomly assigned to two treatment groups, A and B. Patients in Group A received 50 mg minocycline orally daily whereas patients in Group B were given 500 mg azithromycin orally once a day for 3 consecutive days/week. Both the groups were advised topical application of 2.5% topical benzoyl peroxide gel in the night. The total duration of treatment was 3 weeks. All the patients were evaluated at the end of 3 weeks. Statistical analysis was done using Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: Group A showed a reduction in lesional count of 39.7% for noninflammatory papules, 65.11% for inflammatory papules, and 52.22% for pustules. Similarly, Group B showed 30.39%, 54.69%, and 57.76% reduction in lesional count for noninflammatory papules, inflammatory papules, and pustules, respectively. Conclusions: Both minocycline and azithromycin were equally effective and safe for the treatment of acne vulgaris.
  5,560 289 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Overview and update on the laboratory diagnosis of dermatophytosis
Shivaprakash M Rudramurthy, Dipika Shaw
October 2017, 1(3):3-11
DOI:10.4103/CDR.CDR_35_17  
Dermatophytosis, caused by dermatophytes is becoming difficult to treat due to various reasons. Accurate diagnosis is essential for the accurate management of this infection and prevention of relapse or recurrence. Although this condition is easy to diagnose clinically, due to overlapping signs and symptoms of few dermatological conditions it may be misdiagnosed necessitating laboratory confirmation. Isolation, identification of the dermatophytes and the antifungal susceptible profile may further help to initiate appropriate antifungal agent. The classical conventional techniques such as direct microscopic examination and isolation of fungi from the clinical specimens are still considered as an important modality of diagnosis. With the rise of the molecular era, molecular techniques are increasingly being applied to diagnose dermatophytosis and identify the dermatophytes. The present review provides an overview and update on the laboratory diagnosis of dermatophytosis.
  4,758 825 -
Systemic therapy of dermatophytosis: Practical and systematic approach
Madhu Rengasamy, Janaki Chellam, Sentamilselvi Ganapati
October 2017, 1(3):19-23
DOI:10.4103/CDR.CDR_36_17  
Superficial dermatophytosis caused by dermatophytes belonging to the three genera, “Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton” is the most common fungal infection seen in human beings, worldwide. Medical fraternity in India has been observing an increase in the prevalence of dermatophytosis and that too of the difficult to treat recalcitrant, recurrent and chronic dermatophytosis, over the last 3-4 years. This change in the clinical scenario with increasing frequency of treatment failures has given rise to innumerable treatment options mainly based on individual's experience, as the therapeutic regimens given in the standard textbooks, both Western and Indian, have ceased to result in a good clinical response. With this background, this article will focus on the treatment schedule given in standard textbooks and the current modifications that have evolved to treat dermatophytosis of the glabrous skin.
  4,649 735 2
REVIEW ARTICLE
Common misconceptions about acne vulgaris: A review of the literature
Rex WH Hui
July-December 2017, 1(2):33-36
DOI:10.4103/CDR.CDR_16_17  
Acne vulgaris (acne) is a common chronic skin disease and affects over 90% of teenagers worldwide. Despite its prevalence, acne vulgaris is shrouded in multiple misconceptions that are widespread in the general public, among acne patients, and even in health-care professionals. This article reviewed six common misconceptions about acne vulgaris: (1) acne is a trivial condition and does not require medical attention; (2) acne is a transitory disease of adolescence; (3) dietary factors cause acne; (4) acne is caused by uncleanliness; (5) acne improves rapidly upon treatment; and (6) acne can be treated by sunlight. These misconceptions span across the natural history, etiology, and treatment of acne vulgaris. The paucity of knowledge about acne has potentially severe consequences and should not be overlooked. Underestimating the severity and progression of acne may delay treatment, while misinterpreting the etiology of acne could lead to unnecessary and disruptive lifestyle changes. Unrealistic expectations about therapy will lead to dissatisfaction, which may decrease treatment compliance. Actions in public health, medical education, and research are warranted to eradicate these misconceptions about acne vulgaris.
  4,518 464 -
DIAGNOSTIC PEARL
Red dots caught red handed: Dermoscopy of genital psoriasis
Balachandra Suryakant Ankad, Mahajabeen Madarkar
January-June 2017, 1(1):25-26
DOI:10.4103/2542-551X.196952  
Dermoscopy is an in vivo diagnostic technique that aids in the visualization of epidermis, dermoepidermal junction, and papillary dermis. Histopathology contributes tremendously in confirming the clinical diagnosis of unusual presentations of inflammatory skin disorders. Being noninvasive, dermoscopy assists significantly in differentiation of many inflammatory skin disorders which clinically resemble one another. In this report, authors describe the importance of dermoscopy in the diagnosis of genital psoriasis which was mimicking dermatophytic infection and contact dermatitis.
  4,244 187 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A randomized, single-blind, active controlled study to compare the efficacy of salicylic acid and mandelic acid chemical peel in the treatment of mild to moderately severe acne vulgaris
Shishira R Jartarkar, Bugude Gangadhar, M Mallikarjun, P Manjunath
January-June 2017, 1(1):15-18
DOI:10.4103/2542-551X.196946  
Background: Various modalities of treatment have been used in the treatment of acne and nowadays, clinicians seek to employ new technologies in acne care like chemical peeling. Objectives: The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of salicylic acid and mandelic acid peel in the treatment of mild to moderately severe acne vulgaris. Methodology: A total of fifty patients with mild to moderately severe acne graded based on Global Acne Grading System were divided randomly into two groups of 25 patients each. Group A patients were treated with 20% salicylic acid and Group B patients were treated with 30% mandelic acid every 15 days for six sessions. Pre- and post-peel sunscreen and moisturizer were prescribed. Percentage of improvement in inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions at the end of six sessions was the primary endpoint measure. The improvement was graded as mild, moderate, good, and significant. Results: All the patients showed improvement of acne at the end of the treatment. The mean improvement of inflammatory acne in Group A was 73.3% and in Group B was 65.4%. The mean improvement of noninflammatory acne in Group A was 39.4%, and Group B was 27.9%. In both groups, the improvement in both inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Salicylic acid peel was found to be more efficacious than mandelic acid peel. However, the side effects were less common with no postinflammatory hyperpigmentation with mandelic acid peel.
  3,282 407 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Emerging atypical and unusual presentations of dermatophytosis in India
Sunil Dogra, Tarun Narang
October 2017, 1(3):12-18
DOI:10.4103/CDR.CDR_39_17  
In the recent past, there has been an alarming rise in patients presenting with atypical clinical types of dermatophytosis. These patients require prolonged treatment with systemic and topical antifungal agents. In majority of patients, close household contacts are affected. Frequent relapses and extensive disease affect the quality of life of the patient significantly. The emergence of such a challenging scenario is attributed to complex interplay of host, environment, and agent factors. The change in prevalence of dermatophytes causing the disease; host factors such as comorbidity and immunosuppression; and hot and humid climate, lifestyle changes, and poor hygiene are responsible for atypical dermatophytosis. Several atypical clinical types such as psoriasis-like, eczematous dermatitis-like, seborrheic dermatitis-like, and rosacea-like have been reported. Hence, dermatophytosis has been suggested to be included in the list of great imitators. The collaborative effort involving dermatologists, microbiologists, and public health professionals is required to address this emerging public health problem.
  3,006 531 4
CASE REPORTS
Bowenoid papulosis of genitalia responding to topical 5-Fluorouracil
Ragunatha Shivanna, Meenakshi Kapoor, B Niranjana Murthy, Gangaiah Narendra
January-June 2018, 2(1):25-27
DOI:10.4103/CDR.CDR_11_17  
Bowenoid papulosis (BP), a rare disease with malignant potential, is a distinct clinicopathological entity strongly associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. We described an adult male presenting with well defined, purplish papules of varying size with verrucous to smooth surface distributed discretely over medial side of the left thigh, scrotum, and penile shaft. Histopathology showed focal areas of full thickness epidermal atypia comprising irregularly arranged nuclei which are large, hyperchromatic, and crowded at few places. Pap smear from spouse showed inflammatory infiltrate with moderate-to-severe dysplasia. The patient was treated with topical 5-fluorouracil. Excellent response was noticed at the end of 2 weeks. A patient with BP should be thoroughly educated regarding HPV infection and emphasis should be on prevention. Female patients or sexual partners of male patient with BP are at the risk of developing cervical cancer and hence should be followed with regular cytologic, colposcopic, and histologic examinations.
  2,880 149 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparison of cutaneous manifestations of diabetic with nondiabetic patients: A case-control study
Banavasi S Girisha, Neethu Viswanathan
January-June 2017, 1(1):9-14
DOI:10.4103/2542-551X.196944  
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by raised fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels and a variety of multisystem complications. The prevalence of skin manifestations seems to be similar between type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Cutaneous manifestations usually develop following the diagnosis of diabetes, but in some patients, they are the initial presenting signs, thereby helping in the early diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Objectives: The objective of this study is to describe the cutaneous lesions in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to compare the pattern of skin manifestations in diabetics and nondiabetics in coastal Karnataka and neighboring districts of Kerala. Methodology: This case-control study included 400 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cutaneous manifestations attending the outpatient Departments of Dermatology and General Medicine and those admitted under these departments. A total of 400 age and sex-matched nondiabetic patients were included as controls. Results: Cutaneous infections were noted in 148 (37%) diabetics of which fungal infections were the most common seen in 106 (26.5%) patients, followed by xerosis in 121 (30.25%) and acrochordons in 71 (17.75%) patients. Other dermatoses associated with diabetes mellitus noted were acanthosis nigricans (5.5%), scleredema diabeticorum (0.25%), diabetic bullae (0.5%), and Kyrle's disease (1%). Cutaneous changes associated with neurovascular complications included diabetic foot in 3%, diabetic dermopathy in 2%, and pigmented purpuric dermatosis in 0.25% of the diabetics. Conclusion: A joint effort between dermatology and general medicine is necessary for the early recognition and treatment of the skin conditions and also to ensure adequate metabolic control.
  2,664 328 -
RESIDENT PAGE
Umbilicated lesions in dermatology
Aditya Kumar Bubna
January-June 2019, 3(1):99-103
DOI:10.4103/CDR.CDR_52_18  
  2,329 193 -
CASE REPORTS
Cutaneous pseudolymphoma: An enigma
BM Shashikumar, MR Harish, Kirti P Katwe, M Kavya
January-June 2017, 1(1):22-24
DOI:10.4103/2542-551X.196949  
Cutaneous pseudolymphoma, also called lymphoid infiltrates of the skin mimicking lymphomas, is defined as reactive polyclonal benign lymphoproliferative process predominantly composed of either B-cells or T-cells, localized or disseminated. A 62-year-old male presented with multiple asymptomatic swellings over the posterior aspect of the left ear of 1-year duration. On examination, multiple nodules were present over the left retroauricular area, 2 of which were skin colored, firm, and nontender. Histopathology revealed pseudolymphoma with the features of a dense diffuse and nodular infiltrate of small and large lymphocytes and histiocytoid cells involving the whole of reticular dermis and extending to subcutis. A patch test was done using Indian standard battery series showed positive reaction - 2+ for paraphenylenediamine. A diagnosis of cutaneous pseudolymphoma was made. The lesions were treated with intralesional Triamcinolone acetonide injection 10 mg/ml for 2 sittings, 3 weeks apart following which there was remission of the nodules. Pseudolymphomas are benign but persistent lymphoid proliferations in the dermis, which may be difficult to distinguish from a low-grade malignant lymphoma. Pseudolymphomas are classified according to the histological components into B-cell and T-cell variants. So far no case of cutaneous pseudolymphoma suggestive of insect bite with coincidental paraphenylenediamine allergy has been reported. Hence, this case is reported as its histopathology was suggestive of pseudolymphoma secondary to insect bite reaction.
  2,229 198 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A study of clinical patterns of acute radiation dermatitis among patients attending dermatology outpatient department at tertiary center in Western India
Shivani Saini, Varadraj Pai, Pankaj Shukla, Harshal Ranglani
January-June 2018, 2(1):8-12
DOI:10.4103/CDR.CDR_17_17  
Background: Radiation dermatitis (RD) is a commonly encountered adverse effect of definitive radiation therapy. The severity of RD is influenced by multiple patient and treatment-related factors. Radiation depletes the basal cell layer of skin and initiates a complex sequence of events leading to dose-dependent acute or late sequelae. The management of RD requires a multidisciplinary approach. Objectives: The aim is to highlight the pattern and the profile of patients with acute RD attending dermatology outpatient department. Materials and Methods: Hospital-based cross-sectional study of 47 consecutive adult patients with acute RD attending skin outpatient department over a period of 12 months. Results: A total of 47 patients of RD attended the skin clinic, of which were 16 males and 31 were female. The RD was reported within the first 2 weeks of initiation of therapy in most of the patients. Grade 1 RD was the least common presentation. Conclusions: This study highlights the importance of grading the RD, for the appropriate management of the patients suffering from the same and is also a step toward the prevention of the RD.
  2,164 184 -
Study of cutaneous adverse effects of cancer chemotherapy
Ashok Menon, Sripathi Handattu, Jayaram Shetty, Banavasi Shanmukha Girisha
January-June 2018, 2(1):19-24
DOI:10.4103/CDR.CDR_20_17  
Background: Cancer is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in both developed and developing parts of the world with the disease burden projected to grow exponentially in future. Over the past several decades great advances have been made in the area of cancer chemotherapy. Objectives: To study the various cutaneous adverse events associated with cancer chemotherapy. Methodology: 100 patients diagnosed with cancer attending the departments of a tertiary hospital who underwent chemotherapy and satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in this study. It is a hospital based observational study. All patients were counselled about the study and informed written consent was obtained. Patients were examined before start of chemotherapy treatment and after every cycle of chemotherapy. Data collected was analysed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: In this study, 100 patients including 37 females and 63 males were included in this study. Majority (56%) of the patients belonged to the age group of 41-60 years. The common indications for chemotherapy were carcinoma oropharynx (24%), carcinoma breast (18%), tongue and stomach. Among the cutaneous adverse events noted, hair changes were the most common presentation and were reported in 68 patients. Skin changes were seen in 65 cases, nail changes in 30 cases and mucosal changes in 12 patients. Xerosis (26%) and hyperpigmentation (22%) were the most commonly observed adverse event affecting skin. Cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, 5 fluorouracil, carboplatin, paclitaxel and doxorubicin were the most frequently prescribed chemotherapeutic drugs. Conclusion: Our observations necessitate a joint effort between dermatology and oncology for the early recognition and adequate treatment of the cutaneous adverse effects associated with cancer chemotherapy which may help in reducing morbidity and improving compliance.
  1,976 316 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Management of dermatophytosis in elderly and with systemic comorbidities
Ragunatha Shivanna, Rajesh
October 2017, 1(3):38-41
DOI:10.4103/CDR.CDR_32_17  
Various factors unique to elderly patients such as physical, physiological, psychological, and socioeconomic factors affect the outcome of dermatophytic infection and its management. The associated comorbidities such as renal and hepatic failure and polypharmacy influence the pharmacological properties of antifungal agents. These drugs are potent inhibitors of hepatic enzymes involved in drug metabolism leading to accumulation and subsequent toxicity of various classes of drugs. All these factors are considered in the management of dermatophytosis in elderly especially with comorbidities.
  1,955 262 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureusmenace: A dermatologist's perspective
Manjunath Hulmani, Shruti Kakar, V Jagannath Kumar
January-June 2017, 1(1):4-8
DOI:10.4103/2542-551X.196941  
Staphylococcus aureus is a facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive coccal bacterium. In contemporary times, one of the major concerns in all fields of medicine is the emerging resistance to S. aureus. There are two types of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), that is, hospital acquired (HA) and community acquired (CA). HA-MRSA strains contain staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) I and II, which are larger and have the capacity for multidrug resistance. High expression of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), phenol-soluble modulins (PSM), α-toxin, core genome-encoded superantigen SEIX, and teichoic acid contributes to increased virulence in CA-MRSA strains. Methicillin resistance in staphylococci is due to the acquisition of a mobile genetic element (mec) called the SCCmec. All SCCmec types include the mecA gene, which codes for the low-affinity penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 2a. Resistance is due to the fact that β-lactam antibiotics cannot inhibit PBP2a. Biofilms are surface-attached bacterial agglomerations embedded in extracellular matrix. There are various toxins such as PVL, PSMs, surface-anchored S. aureus-binding proteins, and SasX protein. It can cause folliculitis, furunculosis, abscesses, carbuncles, cellulitis, necrotizing pneumonia, urinary tract infection, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, thrombophlebitis, endocarditis, and toxic shock syndrome. Many diagnostic modalities are available to identify MRSA. The mainstay of treatment is incision and drainage. Systemic antibiotics such as clindamycin, doxycycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, linezolid, daptomycin, tigecycline, and tedizolid are the most commonly used antibiotics. The prevalence of CA-MRSA is on the rise, and as a dermatologist, our concern is to prevent the occurrence of recurrent furunculosis and patient dissatisfaction.
  1,941 238 -
CASE REPORTS
Pemphigus foliaceus: A rare case of exfoliative dermatitis
Vaishnavi Gopal, Malcolm Pinto, Manjunath Shenoy Mala
January-June 2017, 1(1):19-21
DOI:10.4103/2542-551X.196947  
Exfoliative dermatitis (ED) is a dermatological condition necessitating admission as it can sometimes be fatal because of its metabolic burden and complications. Papulosquamous disorders and drug reactions comprise over 75% of all the causes of ED. One must be vigilant for the rarer causes of ED as treatment protocols vary and prompt institution of treatment is lifesaving. We present a case of a 56-year-old man with ED who had a history of developing recurrent crusted lesions over the scalp and trunk over the last 3 years. He was treated with oral steroids which he stopped abruptly 6 months ago. Then, he applied topical herbal medications over the lesions before the skin disease progressed to the present state of ED. We uncovered his old records where the histopathology and direct immunofluorescence studies aided in the diagnosis. Based on the history, examination findings supported by histopathology and immunofluorescence studies we came to a final diagnosis of ED secondary to pemphigus foliaceus. This case has been reported for the rare presentation of a common immunobullous disorder and to highlight its diagnostic difficulties.
  1,914 228 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Compensatory phenomena in dermatology
Keshavmurthy A Adya, Arun C Inamadar, Aparna Palit
January-June 2018, 2(1):1-7
DOI:10.4103/CDR.CDR_26_17  
Compensatory mechanisms in the human body are generally set in action when there is an absence or deficiency of an attribute to make up for the same. Such mechanisms may be intended to compensate for either the quantitative deficiency or functional impairment of an attribute performing a particular function. Frequently, in an attempt to normalize the homeostatic milieu, the compensatory mechanisms may work more than necessary producing undesired effects as well. In this review, we describe some of such compensatory phenomena in relation to clinical, immunological, pathological, and few other aspects of dermatology, as well as such phenomena characterizing some of the dermatotherapeutics.
  1,791 309 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Trends in hair care and cleansing: A knowledge, attitude, and practice study
Mamatha S Kusagur, N Asifa, SugaReddy
July-December 2017, 1(2):56-60
DOI:10.4103/CDR.CDR_4_17  
Background: In the present era, everyone would like to have healthy, glamorous, and shiny hair. The technology has advanced the cleansing and hair beautification process. Hair cleansing or washing is the act of keeping hair clean by washing with shampoos, soaps or other detergent products, and water. Shampoos aid in cleaning and maintenance of hair. Hair conditioners are used to improve hair's texture and manageability and give hair a smooth and resilient feel. Objectives: The aim of this study is to describe the knowledge, attitude, and practice of men and women toward cleansing of hair with respect to Indian scenario. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey conducted on male and female patients who attended dermatology outpatient department. A prestructured questionnaire about hair care and cleansing was used to assess 50 male and 50 female patients in the age group of 11–60 years. Results: In this study, we found that about 65% of participants washed their hair once a week. Hard water was used to wash hair by 44%, shampoos were used for cleansing in 65%, followed by soaps in 25%, no cleanser in 8%, and soap nut in 2%. Hair conditioners were used by 20%. Egg and other substances, such as hibiscus and soap nut, were used by 20% before cleansing. Oil before cleansing was used by 9%. About 48% of participants felt the need for a change of a cleanser after 6 months. The whole scalp hair was cleansed by 48% of the participants, whereas 14% concentrated more on the front of the scalp, followed by 6% who cleansed their hair ends more than the center or front. Conclusion: In the current Indian scenario, most of the people have to be counseled about the proper methods of hair cleansing and hair care, and to shrug out the age old myths concerning hair cleansing.
  1,800 193 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Genital lesions in a female child: Approach to the diagnosis
Bhakthavatsalam Anitha, Ragunatha Shivanna
July-December 2018, 2(2):49-57
DOI:10.4103/CDR.CDR_19_18  
Genital lesions in a female child cause a lot of apprehension in the parents. Hence, thorough knowledge and proper approach to the diagnosis is very important. The aim of this article is to present an overview of the pattern of diseases affecting genitalia in a female child, significance of these diseases, and an approach to the diagnosis of these diseases. Most of these vulval dermatoses present with one of the four clinical scenarios such as pruritus with/without lesions, pain with/without lesions, discharge with/without lesions, and asymptomatic lesions. The approach to the diagnosis has been discussed accordingly. Diseases such as genital warts and genital herpes which are not common in this age group always raise the suspicion of child sexual abuse. There are certain adult vulval dermatoses such as chronic vulvovaginal candidiasis, which are not seen in prepubertal group.
  1,697 288 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A randomized, assessor-blinded, comparative study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oat extract-based moisturizer in adult individuals with dry skin
Sarvajnamurthy Aradhya Sacchidanand, Satish Udare, Dhammraj Madhukar Borade, Varsha Narayanan, Sagar Katare, Ashish Mane, Agam Shah
July-December 2018, 2(2):58-63
DOI:10.4103/CDR.CDR_37_17  
Background: Dry skin or xeroderma is a very frequent condition which occurs at any age. Moisturizers including conventional oatmeal have been widely used to improve dry skin conditions. Oat-based moisturizer can protect, hydrate, and promote the endogenous barrier repair. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oat extract-based moisturizer in adult individuals with dry skin. Materials and Methods: This study was a treatment-randomized, assessor-blinded, no treatment controlled, comparative study. A total of 36 individuals were included in the study. Oat extract-based moisturizer (test product) and control treatment (no product application) were randomized, as per randomization plan and applied to all individuals on the surface of volar forearm 2 cm (1 cm radius) in diameter. In addition, right cheek as control site and left cheek as test site (oat extract-based moisturizer lotion) were considered for sebum level and facial skin pH analysis. Results: Oat extract-based moisturizer possessed excellent skin moisturizing properties. Both the Corneometer® and modified Kligman score, respectively, showed significant improvement (P < 0.0001) in skin hydration and decrease in skin dryness with respect to baseline till 24 h postapplication. Furthermore, Cutometer® reading had statistically significant increase in skin elasticity as compared to baseline till 6 h postapplication. There was no statistically significant effect on skin pH and sebum level as compared to control treatment. This concludes that oat extract-based moisturizer is effective in improving skin hydration and elasticity without any change in skin pH and sebum levels. Conclusion: Test product (oat extract-based moisturizer lotion) was safe and well tolerated. Efficacy analysis showed that the effect of oat extract-based moisturizer was significant in terms of skin hydration and skin elasticity.
  1,734 248 -