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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 9-14

Comparison of cutaneous manifestations of diabetic with nondiabetic patients: A case-control study


1 Department of Dermatology, K.S. Hegde Medical Academy, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
2 Consultant Dermatologist, Payyanur, Kerala, India

Correspondence Address:
Banavasi S Girisha
Department of Dermatology, K.S. Hegde Charitable Hospital, Deralakatte, Mangalore - 575 018, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2542-551X.196944

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Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by raised fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels and a variety of multisystem complications. The prevalence of skin manifestations seems to be similar between type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Cutaneous manifestations usually develop following the diagnosis of diabetes, but in some patients, they are the initial presenting signs, thereby helping in the early diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Objectives: The objective of this study is to describe the cutaneous lesions in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to compare the pattern of skin manifestations in diabetics and nondiabetics in coastal Karnataka and neighboring districts of Kerala. Methodology: This case-control study included 400 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cutaneous manifestations attending the outpatient Departments of Dermatology and General Medicine and those admitted under these departments. A total of 400 age and sex-matched nondiabetic patients were included as controls. Results: Cutaneous infections were noted in 148 (37%) diabetics of which fungal infections were the most common seen in 106 (26.5%) patients, followed by xerosis in 121 (30.25%) and acrochordons in 71 (17.75%) patients. Other dermatoses associated with diabetes mellitus noted were acanthosis nigricans (5.5%), scleredema diabeticorum (0.25%), diabetic bullae (0.5%), and Kyrle's disease (1%). Cutaneous changes associated with neurovascular complications included diabetic foot in 3%, diabetic dermopathy in 2%, and pigmented purpuric dermatosis in 0.25% of the diabetics. Conclusion: A joint effort between dermatology and general medicine is necessary for the early recognition and treatment of the skin conditions and also to ensure adequate metabolic control.


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